Activities in the SAPP project are broken down into eight different workpackages, each managed by a different project partner. A brief summary of the activities and their expected deliverables can be found below.

Work package 1: Management of Project and Communication of outputs
Lead partner NRI-UOG

Involved partners All partners
• Coordinate all activities among partners
• Ensure timely reporting to the SADC
• Ensure all activities are carried out to time and budget.
• Implement communication strategy for project outputs
Project size, complexity and level of integration/interdependency among different project actions require strict delivery and adherence to project timelines. Partners must work together to achieve project outputs.
Description of work
Project inception workshop. A one-week project inception workshop will be held at the outset to enable all partners to define the procedures for working together to achieve the project outputs. We will review the contractual arrangements for the financial control of the project and for the assessment of the agreed tasks and deliverables. Work package managers will present strategies and protocols to be accepted after discussion by all partners. The workshop will include hands-on training where needed, especially for standardised procedures that need to be followed by different partners.
Follow-up coordination meetings. Formal meetings will be organised each year with representation from each partner. In order to provide the project with independent evaluation and ensure key stakeholders are informed of progress, experts and end users will be invited to participate. Presentations from each work package leader will summarise achievements. Discussions about progress, potential deviations from the work plan and forward planning will be standing items at each meeting.
Activity reporting. Partners will prepare a two-page activity report every six months. The lead applicant and work package managers will use these to assess whether work progresses to plan and take action to minimise the effects of delays on other project activities.
Annual progress reports. Annual reports will be made following SADC instructions. Work package managers will be responsible for collating information and making a single WP-report. The lead applicant will be responsible for integrating these into a single full report. A similar approach will be used to prepare the final project report covering information from all project years.
Project communication strategy. Implementation of the project communication strategy (Annex D).
Project reporting delivered on time
Communication strategy implemented
None anticipated.

Work package 2: Literature and field surveys of indigenous uses of botanical pesticides, analysis of habitat change, formulation of policy recommendations
Lead partner RBGKEW
Involved partners NRI-UOG, UZ, DARS, ICRAF, MUM
• Acquire information about the indigenous use of pesticidal plant species and close knowledge gaps
• Provide a modern and accessible database and information leaflets of pesticidal plants based on historical and current uses of plants in Caesalpinioid woodlands
• Determine current diversity of pesticidal plants in Caesalpinioid woodland and particularly the prevalence of uncommon species.
• Prepare a policy document on sustainable economic potential of Caesalpinioid woodlands as a resource for pesticidal plants
Some GOs & NGOs misguidedly promote pesticidal plants for uses that may have negative human health outcomes as discussed in 1.6. Historical surveys and scientific evaluations may also be taken out of context resulting in inappropriate application, particularly when plants are used in new ways that are not supported by African tradition. This WP will acquire information to prevent this happening. A number of habitat surveys were carried out in the mid-20th century but since then, climate change, agricultural expansion, overgrazing and fires may have caused significant ecological changes and habitat degradation. Survey data will indicate whether historical data about the abundance of indigenously used plant species exaggerates their current distribution. All work will be carried out in compliance with the convention on biological diversity (CBD) to ensure that
Description of work
Literature survey. Considerable ethno-botanical information exists at institutions in SADC countries in unpublished reports and will be surveyed along with more established sources, such as electronic databases that catalogue botanical plant uses e.g. Flora Zambesiaca, SEPASAL and PROTA. We propose to create a searchable database for pesticidal plant materials found within Caesalpinioid woodlands. A list of pesticidal plants that are commonly used will be produced and this information will be linked to existing scientific knowledge on plant chemistry and activity.
Field survey. From a prioritised list, three sites will be selected in each country for field surveys that will best help fill knowledge gaps identified in existing literature. Surveys will consist of group and individual discussions using PRAs and formal surveys and samples of plant materials that are known to be used locally will be collected and have their botanical identify determined.
Key species short-listing. A shortlist of plant species including some apparently threatened species will be selected to facilitate a detailed evaluation of habitat change from literature and databases in herbaria and botanic gardens in the four partner countries.
Analysis of habitat change. Changes in abundance will be determined by comparison of survey data from this project with historical data ensuring correlation with project survey techniques. Readily available satellite imagery will be used to assess and confirm large-scale land use changes in sampled areas and changes in biodiversity will be determined. Abundance and probability of occurrence of selected key species will also be modelled in relation to environmental degradation.
Development of policy recommendations. A policy document highlighting conservation issues relating to pesticidal plant use in Caesalpinioid woodlands will be produced that will recommend intervention such as the potential for cultivation to reduce harvesting.
Comprehensive electronic database of pesticidal plants found in Caesalpinioid woodland based on indigenous knowledge surveys
A modern map showing abundance and location of key plants used in agricultural pest management.
Policy document highlighting conservation targets and solutions.
Collating all marginal or rare sources of data found in the target countries may prove difficult. Although data will be drawn from all sources relevant to the Caesalpinioid woodland eco-region, there may be potential bias related to the focus countries of Zimbabwe, Zambia and Malawi where it will be possible to collect information than in other SADC countries. Extent of surveys carried out within the project will be limited by the size of the Caesalpinioid woodland and may not reflect conditions found outside of this ecological zone or outside the 3 partner countries.

Work package 3: Phytochemical characterisation of active materials
Lead partner NRI-UOG
Involved partners RBGKEW, MUM, UZ
• Chemical profiling of at least 10 selected pesticidal plants
• Identification of key biologically active components of at least 5 species.
• Capacity building through staff exchange and training of SADC scientists by working in UK labs at NRI-UOG and RBG-Kew to learn new and SADC appropriate analytical techniques.
The use of plants as pesticides is an established and effective indigenous approach to crop and storage protection. However, their sustainable use would be improved substantially through a deeper understanding of the chemistry that governs their activity by enhancing application methods, improving harvesting strategies and identifying novel plant alternatives for threatened species. For example, an abundant plant with similar chemistry to a scarce but popular and over harvested species could be promoted as an environmentally benign alternative. Furthermore, plants in which active components are water soluble might be better applied as water extracts than powdered plant material. The chemistry of plants varies seasonally and according to location so chemical analysis is needed to optimise harvesting times. The ability of SADC partners to carry out this analytical work is limited and this capacity needs to be built. This WP will incorporate a substantial component of teaching analytical techniques relevant to the partners.
Description of work
Species selection. At least 10 plant species from the Caesalpinioid woodlands of Southern Africa will be selected based on information arising from WP2 and above and through literature surveys. Plants selected for chemical analysis will be those with known indigenous use in agricultural pest control.
Sample collection. Samples will be collected with authorisation and in partnership with collaborating institutes with material transfer agreements in place. Plants will be collected at different times of the year to enable chemical comparison between season to determine if their may be optimal harvesting times for certain compounds.
Chemical fingerprinting. Chemical analysis using mass spectrometry will be used to maximise information acquisition of compounds in each plant. These analyses will be used to identify as many components as possible and determine their seasonal variations in selected plant species. This information will be used to indicate the best time for farmers to harvest. This activity will be conducted in association with chemists from collaborating countries to ensure capacity is built for them to continue similar work during and after the project.
Isolation and Characterisation. Where compounds appear to be highly significant but unknown and not identifiable from spectral libraries they will be isolated and their structures determined using established techniques and equipment available at NRI and RBG-KEW.
Staff exchange/training. All preliminary analyses will be carried out in UK but in collaboration with relevant partners thus building capacity thorough tuition in analytical techniques. Methods will be developed for continued work after the project that are appropriate and relevant in terms of resources and facilities of SADC partner institutions,
At least 3 peer reviewed papers.
Training document for rapid chemical analysis of plant materials produced.
The achievement of this WP depends upon cooperation of partner countries to authorise material transfer agreements to UK.

Work package 4: Determine safety of key botanical pesticides through vertebrate toxicity studies
Lead partner UZ
Involved partners NRI-UOG, DARS, MUM
• Provide vertebrate toxicity data of up to 10 species to assess potential human health and animal risks
• Build capacity of SADC scientists to carry out vertebrate toxicity trials for the preliminary screening of pesticidal plant materials
Pesticidal plants can present a significant health risk to users when extracting, pounding or concentrating active ingredients yet virtually no work has been published internationally on their vertebrate toxicity. One study on West African plants used to protect stored grain from insect pests has shown that some of those most commonly found and used by farmers can adversely affect growth and development (when fed to rodents), with potentially long term effects. Greatest risks exist when pesticidal plants are used for post-harvest treatment especially when toxic species originally developed and promoted for use in field pest management such as Tephrosia and Derris spp. where they present little problem are promoted by poorly informed extension organisations for use on stored food stuffs. It is a myth that because they are natural pesticidal plants are safe., Plants, produce some of the most toxic substances known and many plant materials may be more dangerous than commercial synthetic insecticides. It is therefore essential to develop the capacity within SADC countries to evaluate their toxicity and ensure appropriate promotion to end users.
Description of work
Species selection. Species that are commonly used for post-harvest protection or are processed in ways that could increase risks (e.g. fine powders, oil extraction) will be selected in combination with phytochemical information from WP3 and existing chemical knowledge. Species will where the presence of carcinogens is known.
Rodent feeding trial. Appropriate cell based procedures for mammalian toxicity testing for plant materials are not currently available. Consequently, standardised methodologies will be followed for rearing test rodents under laboratory conditions to sexual maturity and following local ethics committee procedures. Plant materials will be incorporated into standard rodent diet at two concentrations (1% and 5%) in minimum test groups of 6 animals plus control animals (diet without plant material). Rodents will be cross-correlated for weight gain and observed for behavioural abnormalities.
Histology. Animals will be sacrificed at the end of the trial (6 weeks) and livers and kidneys will be weighed, measured and examined histologically for cell damage, increased mitosis or other abnormalities.
One international peer-reviewed journal paper on vertebrate toxicity data on pesticidal plant materials.
Toxicity data sheets produced for regulatory authorities.
Rodent feeding trials for particular plant species will have to be stopped if animals appear to be adversely suffering, thereby affecting quantity of data derived.

Work package 5: Farm trials to develop and promote effective use of botanical pesticides
Lead partner DARS
Involved partners UZ, SAFIRE, ICRAF, NRI-UOG
• Farmer participatory rural appraisal (PRA) of commonly used pesticidal plant control strategies under farm conditions using standardised comparative methodologies
Nearly all research on pesticidal plants has been carried out in laboratories or on agricultural research stations. Although relevant, these trials fail to assess the use of plant materials under farm condition that may differ from the uniform environment of a research station. Consequently they do not assess many of the other factors, besides efficacy, which are important to farmers when they choose to use plant materials for insect pest control (e.g. labour, availability, ease of use, marketability of treated produce). A number of unpublished studies have been conducted in southern Africa (Gondwe T.N personal communication) which indicates there is already established interest in this application. This WP activity will distil this information to provide a clear picture of what plants are effective ectoparasitic control agents in SADC countries. For instance, in Zambia, farmers use fish bean (Tephrosia vogelii) as a livestock dip for control of ticks. Previous surveys have also established that species of the genera Neurautanenia, Boscia, Acanthosicyos, Courbonia and Tephrosia have acaricidal properties. Cassia abbreviata, "mutili" and "ombwe" are other promising plants. This work will be guided by outputs from WP4.
Description of work
Numbers of trials These PRA optimisation trials will be carried out in three communities consisting of 50 farmers in each country and all trials will be conducted in consultation with farmers to optimise the relevance of the project outputs to their livelihoods and increase the impact.
Post-harvest uses. Pesticidal plants can be used in a number of ways by farmers to treat stored grain. Some farmers layer or admix dried plant parts, others produce powders or use water extracts in which the commodity is then dipped or sprayed with the extract. Research in other parts of Africa indicates that these variable methods in addition to dose can significantly influence the efficacy [2]. Using farmers’ own grain stores, a series of controlled trials will be carried out to evaluate different plant materials and application methods. The species, dose, application, commodity, intended use of grain (seed or food grain) will be decided in consultation with farmers. Standard methods for sampling grain over the storage period and determining insect infestation, damage, and grain loss will be used and sampling will be carried out by scientific staff alongside farmers. Assessments of grain characteristics such as tainting, discoloration, marketability will be evaluated in blind tests with farmers and in local markets.
Vegetable production Pesticidal plants are used commonly to treat kitchen gardens crops including leafy, fruiting or root vegetables. In these cases most farmers choose to extract plant parts in water and spray over the crop. However, variability still exists, e.g. cold or hot water extracts, duration of extraction, in sun or shade and these application variations will be captured within managed trials to establish application rates, frequency and concentration. Damage will be evaluated using standardised methods.
Ectoparasite control. Field experiments will be carried out with plants identified through surveys in WP2 to determine potential value as acaricides with selected plants species by treating animals using indigenous techniques and with traditional plant preparation.
Simple protocols on the best way to use pesticidal plant materials, giving clear statements of efficacy produced for farmers and NGOs.
At least two peer-reviewed journal articles on efficacy and persistence of pesticidal plant materials in on-farm PRAs.
Information sheets in local languages providing instructions for the safe and effective use of local pesticidal plants produced.
Programmes promoting the safe and effective use of pesticidal plants aired on radio and television.
Farmer and NGO workshops held to inform the wider community about the use of pesticidal plants.
Parameter set is very large, and it will only be possible to carry out these experiments with a limited parameter set within the time constraints and budgets of the proposed action. Trials will, therefore, be limited in the number of plant species assessed, prioritising parameters based on discussions with farming communities involved. Participating farmers may not have sufficient grain for on-farm trials due to drought.

Work package 6: Development and promotion of sustainable production of botanical pesticides
Lead partner ICRAF
Involved partners UZ, DARS, NRI-UOG, SAFIRE
• Generate data on propagation criteria for pesticidal plant materials that are sought after, rare and/or commonly used by people living in the Caesalpinioid woodland eco-region.
• Develop improved harvesting protocols for wild-collected plants at risk of over-collection
• Carry out cultivation trials for promising pesticidal plants with commercial potential
• Develop improved methods of collecting pesticidal plants that optimises bioactivity
The use of pesticidal plants collected from the wild is only sustainable if small numbers of people use the plant or if the plant is abundant and ubiquitous or propagated easily. However, demand for some plants is outstripping supply, particularly as overgrazing or bush fires also reduce supply. There is little knowledge about growing and propagating some pesticidal plant species making attempts to cultivate them difficult.
Variation in farmer practice and lack of phytochemical knowledge makes it difficult to know which the optimal methods for collecting plants are.
Description of work
Propagation. The conditions for germination vary considerably and plant seeds often need to be stimulated. Trials on the timing of seed collection, seed drying, storage, and germination are required. These laboratory-based trials will be carried out for a range of perennial, annual and woody shrubs/trees which are used as pesticides. Selection of plants species will be advised through actions described in WP 2 to 5 and particularly through discussion with farming communities.
Sustainable harvesting. In some cases, roots, bark, seeds or entire plants of pesticidal species are used, and the collection of these parts is not sustainable. Research in other WPs will help inform this activity. For example, it may be that where roots are harvested (and so the plant is killed) active compounds also occur in leaves, and harvesting these would be more sustainable. Trials to improve the way certain species are harvested will be carried out in collaboration with farming communities as described in WP 6. These trials will assess the impact of modified harvesting methods on abundance of the species within a restricted area and compare this to similar areas where modified harvesting has not been practiced.
Cultivation. Data generated through propagation trials will lead to on-farm trials where farmers cultivate pesticidal plants. These trials will assess germination and production inputs required. Samples collected will be chemically analysed to compare with wild plants.
Harvesting. The plant compounds in pesticidal plants can vary according to location and season and since their efficacy as pest control agents depends on plant compounds harvesting times can be crucial in optimising their efficacy. A list of plant species will be made through discussion with farming communities and based on existing knowledge and that generated within this project. Samples will be collected from up to ten species to determine whether this variation affects bioactive content. Variability among samples will be in WP 3.
Processing. Once harvested plant materials are usually dried, ground or extracted to give a product which is used immediately, stored or sold. Exposure to sunlight and oxidation can change chemistry and so it’s bioactivity, so trials will be carried out to evaluate differences in the way in which farmers may process pesticidal plant species. Variability in bioactivity from different processing will be determined in WP 4.
Guidelines on collecting and cultivating pesticidal plants that are not presently cultivated and are threatened.
Protocols produced for sustainable harvesting and effective preparation of pesticidal plant material.
Farmer and NGO workshops to inform the wider farming community about sustainable use of pesticidal plants and their cultivation.
Policy document on sustainable use of pesticidal plants and conservation of Caesalpinioid woodland habitats across the region.
Action will be limited to a list of key plant species only, up to a maximum of 10. Data on safety, efficacy & acceptability collected in other WPs indicate the plant can be used sustainably with minimal health risk. Parameter set is very large, and it will only be possible to carry trials for a limited parameter set. Prioritisation of parameters based on discussions with farming communities and existing knowledge will be crucial to achieve best results.

Work package 7: Maximise availability of plant pesticides to small-scale farmers
Lead partner SAFIRE
Involved partners NRI-UOG, RBGKEW, ICRAF, DARS,
• Encourage the marketing of pesticidal plants as a cash crop for small-scale farmers living in the Caesalpinioid woodland eco-region
This is an essential step towards the formalisation of pesticidal plant use for agricultural pest management, particularly if government and non-governmental organisations continue to promote the use of wild plants. Demand for pesticidal plants will continue to grow, which can only realistically be met through their cultivation and marketing.
Description of work
Market surveys. Establish which plants are already sold in markets, prices, demand, and the marketing chain involved. Perceptions of the target users will also be obtained through the market surveys. This work will be done through surveying local and regional markets using questionnaires and structured discussion with individuals and groups of market traders, purchasers, suppliers and producers in each of the target countries (Zimbabwe, Zambia and Malawi). Common protocols will be developed to ensure results are comparable. The data will be analysed and used to produce a report on the market potential for pesticidal plants derived from the Caesalpinioid woodland habitat.
Policy and socio-economic report on market potential of pesticidal plant materials from Caesalpinioid woodland habitats.
Workshops for NGOs and farmers to promote the supply of pesticidal plants by small scale enterprises in each country.
None anticipated.

Work package 8: Organise workshops and training courses with inputs by UK experts
Lead partner NRI-UOG
Involved partners RBGKEW, ICRAF, UZ, DARS, SAFIRE
• Build capacity in SADC scientists and institutes to evaluate, develop and promote use of botanical pesticides
This is an essential component of building a project exit strategy. By ensuring that local scientists are able to carry out similar work beyond the life time of the project the work will continue to develop this important resource for small-scale farmers and continue to …..
Description of work
Workshops. At least 5 workshops will be held that formally provide tutoring for SADC partners i) Habitat surveys and data-basing (RBG-KEW to lead)
ii) Analytical chemistry & quality control of pesticidal products (NRI-UOG to lead)
iii) Horticulture and seed germination of wild plants (RBG-Kew to lead)
iv) Participatory Rural Appraisals and livelihoods studies (NRI-UOG to lead)
v) Promotion and marketing techniques (NRI-UOG to lead)
At least 5 scientists will be trained in each country in technical aspects of development and promotion of botanical pesticides
Suitable candidates are available for training.

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